신안콜걸┛예약▶신안수원 마사지 추천《신안동인천 마사지》☭﹝신안남성 왁싱﹞↕신안용인 마사지♣신안천안 안마방┛신안다이소 마사지ο신안태국 마사지 토렌트◄신안출장아가씨

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

신안콜걸❤출장부르는법➻신안수원 마사지 추천《신안출장마사지》➳﹝신안답십리 안마방﹞❄신안출장코스가격﹌신안센슈얼 마사지☼신안암사동 마사지◥신안안마방 튜브♐신안마사지 젤

The governments of more than 190 nations 포천니시미야 코노미 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

신안콜걸┧출장부르는법►신안수원 마사지 추천《신안나고야 여성전용 마사지》╤﹝신안출장﹞⊥신안커플 마사지◥신안동래 마사지☢신안지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지╬신안출장안마┻신안영대 안마방

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

신안콜걸╣예약ネ신안수원 마사지 추천《신안로드샵 단속》ミ﹝신안안마방 초이스 토렌트﹞➵신안두통 완화 마사지╣신안칭다오 마사지╩신안거제 마사지➸신안범계역 안마방⇟신안일본에서 한국녀섭외 마사지

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories smatoos.xyz . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

신안콜걸♛예약♂신안수원 마사지 추천《신안다리 마사지》⊙﹝신안호치민 호텔 마사지﹞£신안부산 안마방 가격⇅신안성감 마사지α신안출장샵예약포항☢신안경찰 안마방❤신안출장오쓰피걸

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 울진팔자주름 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

신안콜걸▥예약♂신안수원 마사지 추천《신안용인 마사지》✌﹝신안아로마 마사지 부작용﹞❦신안신림동 안마방▪신안언양 마사지↺신안러브젤 마사지☼신안근육 마사지▨신안야동 안마방

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – qdomain.xyz – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

신안콜걸신안카톡 출장

  • 충청북도신림 안마방
  • 신안안마방 요도염
  • 신안콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    신안콜걸╡예약⇩신안수원 마사지 추천《신안출장샵 예약금》╰﹝신안안마방 전화﹞☑신안산남동 마사지▣신안역삼동 마사지┯신안태릉입구역 안마방❉신안안마방 노출リ신안베트남 다낭 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 서귀포안마방 촬영 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 수원출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    양양러시아 마사지 대전출장샵 함평오십견 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    신안콜걸♂예약▒신안수원 마사지 추천《신안게이 안마방》☠﹝신안안마방 알바 구하는법﹞⇤신안마사지 일본웃신안삼산동 안마방╝신안이상근 마사지╚신안안마방 tumblr↴신안사당 출장

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 장흥안마방 키스 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    신안콜걸γ출장부르는법♪신안수원 마사지 추천《신안콜걸후기》★﹝신안토렌트 안마방﹞☼신안안마방 오랄☶신안타이 아로마 마사지✲신안소라넷 마사지➵신안원룸 출장⊿신안프리마호텔 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the carpanda.xyz .

    의정부강동 마사지
    하남홈케어 마사지 군산출장샵 제천공덕 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    신안콜걸↺예약금없는출장샵♪신안수원 마사지 추천《신안안마방 보빨》╌﹝신안대학로 마사지﹞✄신안영통 안마방▷신안서면 안마방♣신안성감 마사지✤신안시화 안마방⇙신안위례 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 구미출장안마 .

    신안콜걸┙예약금없는출장샵-신안수원 마사지 추천《신안홍대 마사지》⇀﹝신안마사지 gif﹞☂신안만남☞신안안마방 몰카✐신안안마방 누드○신안별내 안마방♫신안유재석 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And jasulloc.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 완주충주 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    신안콜걸☋예약⊙신안수원 마사지 추천《신안강동 마사지》☾﹝신안안마방 벌금﹞↜신안야탑 마사지➻신안아내 마사지┲신안흑인 마사지✖신안순천 타이 마사지╩신안안양 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    신안콜걸✌예약금없는출장샵█신안수원 마사지 추천《신안안마방 홈런》➻﹝신안안마방 오피﹞☆신안노원 안마방»신안거제 마사지┮신안계양구 안마방↽신안폼롤러 마사지↸신안양평 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 고성강남역 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. dkevent.xyz .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 광주마사지 텀블러 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 군산출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    신안콜걸♕출장부르는법유신안수원 마사지 추천《신안여인숙 가격》]﹝신안가경동 안마방﹞◊신안한대앞 마사지♪신안역삼역 안마방♠신안성장판 마사지➳신안문정동 마사지♜신안부산 서면 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 광주출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and wonderlend.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    신안콜걸♕예약◎신안수원 마사지 추천《신안등 마사지 방법》ヨ﹝신안태국 전립선 마사지﹞✖신안주안 마사지═신안타이마사지 팁 서비스◘신안강서 마사지♀신안타이 마사지 썰⇙신안발안 모텔

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    안산응암 마사지
    목포출장안마 밀양전립선 마사지 기구 바카라사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    신안콜걸⇚예약금없는출장샵☺신안수원 마사지 추천《신안마사지 침대》✕﹝신안일본 마사지﹞★신안모텔 콜•신안엘림 마사지♩신안마사지 카운터 알바╌신안안마방 핸드폰▥신안제천 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.신안콜걸신안커플 마사지 tumblr⇩신안목포 여관キ﹝신안김해 출장 마사지﹞신안누들누 드⇪신안일산 타이 마사지☎신안현풍 안마방♠신안gigi rivera 마사지╠ 대구출장안마예약금없는출장샵신안영등포 마사지⇃신안한국야동 안마방フ《신안제주 마사지》신안안마방 핸드폰㍿신안안마방 팁☱신안전립선 마사지 썰☀신안안마방 모텔☴신안콜걸구미안마방 미러신안베트남 마사지 야동✙신안육덕 마사지υ﹛신안안마방 핸드폰﹜신안정자역 마사지ⓛ신안철구 마사지»신안에이미 안마방♡신안콜녀☲신안콜걸♪신안마카오 마사지☆<신안사상 출장>신안연예인 안마방↷신안지저분한 색스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지⇟신안안마방 교복↰신안안마방 성병♔신안콜걸➸신안해피 오렌지 출장 샵◑{신안춘천 안마방}신안이반 마사지↼신안안마방 튜브♧신안아프리카tv 마사지♪신안유성 마사지▷신안시흥 마사지⇍신안일반인 마사지★{신안아침 안마방}신안안마방 조루➻신안상무지구 안마방♥신안안마방 벌금♐신안한물간 연예인 안마방◕예약동인천안마방 누드출장부르는법신안연예인 마사지╖신안진영 안마방✂『신안용현동 마사지』신안태국 여행 마사지✄신안마사지 자격증 종류▫신안구리 마사지➠신안목동역 마사지☎신안콜걸신안콜걸카지노사이트신안출장 카톡신안철원 안마방신안안마방 오르가즘신안국산 안마방 몰카신안콜걸신안홍대 안마방 위치♞신안출장 서비스⇪(신안코 마사지 효과)신안속초 모텔 추천↕신안군산 터미널 모텔▦신안소라넷 이벤트⇩신안거제 안마방▤금산마사지 롤러

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.